The above chart explains how the momentum transfer to the velocity of molecules shifts the entire spectrum of solar radiation received by the Earth to the right, as longer wavelengths (lower frequencies) have lower energies. The chart originally showed how water vapor, CO2 and other gases were absorbing photons (through their vibrations, presumably), but that is not the only way electromagnetic energy is absorbed. It also is absorbed by shifting the wavelength when photons impact molecules, especially N2 and O2, which make up 99% of the atmosphere, by increasing their velocity.
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